Executive functions are cognitive processes in the brain that subconsciously help determine a set of rules PapersOwl.com Login or guidelines in hopes of accomplishing a goal. This function occurs naturally in neurotypicals, but is often hindered with those who have ADHD. Executive functions are performed in order PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login to help successfully accomplish a goal. Examples of executive functions can range from event planning and organizing to cognitive skills of determining whether or not to eat a piece PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login of cake. In one study, children and adolescents with ADHD and ASD were observed by researchers to see if their responses would differ given that both have a deficit in PapersOwl.com Login executive functions. The study observed the reaction when two types of monetary rewards were given to the adolescents. One of the monetary award options was a small immediate reward. The PapersOwl.com Login other option was a larger monetary reward, but received over a longer period of time. There were 46 participants in this study, 38 with ADHD and 34 with PapersOwl.com Login ASD between the ages of 8-16. The computerized temporal reward discounting (TD) test lead to the results of the study showing that children and adolescents with ADHD chose the smaller but immediate reward rather than the larger monetary reward, but dispersed over a period of time. A TD test is responsible for determining whether or not real tasks coincide with hypothetical ones, in this case measuring the difference in monetary rewards. Results found that participants with ADHD chose the smaller and immediate reward, unlike the participants with Autism (PapersOwl.com Login Lawson, 2015). By the participants with ADHD choosing the immediate reward option, showed that there may be a correlation between delay-related processes in the brain. PapersOwl.com Login
Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior, generally diagnosed within the early stages of life. No two individuals living with Autism experience the same symptoms, as the type and severity varies with each case (Holland, 2018.). Autism has been around for hundreds of years, but the definition PapersOwl.com Login has evolved immensely. In 1943, scientists Leo Kanner and Hans Asperger conducted research on individuals with social and emotional deficits to better refine the definition of autism. They observed the cognitive behavioral changes which initially lead to the discovery of Aspergers, separate from Autism (Ames, 2018) . Aspergers and Autism have similar symptoms, but in order to have Autism, PapersOwl.com Login the patient must have social and or emotional interaction deficits, severe problems in regards to maintaining relationships, and nonverbal communication problems (Hyman, 2013).
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a PapersOwl.com Login fairly new chronic neurodevelopmental condition that has been discovered within the past two decades. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a chronic neurodevelopmental condition of the brain that affects 7.PapersOwl.com Login 1% of the population according to Bink and his research team (Bink, 2014). ADHD hinders the ability of an individual to sit still and pay attention to detail, which PapersOwl.com Login results in difficulty on focusing on one thing at a time. Though there is no cure for ADHD, there have been many medical advancements and therapies created to help individuals PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login with ADHD suppress their symptoms. Methylphenidate and Amphetamines are two of the most common stimulants used to help treat ADHD. These help reduce the hyperactivity in the brain and PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login can improve the ability to focus. These medications have been found to be extremely helpful for neurotypicals, but they can have a different effect on individuals with Autism (Hyche, PapersOwl.com Login 2014). ADHD is often diagnosed with adolescents living with Autism Spectrum Disorder. The most common form of treatment for ADHD is through medication, but it is statistically proven that the medication response rates between neurotypicals and individuals living with Autism are significantly different.PapersOwl.com Login
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It is easy to blame President Jackson for removing PapersOwl.com Login the Native Americans from their tribal lands east of the Mississippi River. However, as early as the late 1780s, policy makers had developed a strategy to acquire Indian territory – a strategy they believed would respect the sovereignty and territorial rights of the tribal nations, while also preparing the Native tribes for their social and political incorporation. It wasn’t President Washington’s desire to physically move the Indians to new land. His main objective was to encourage Native Americans to abandon their traditional ways of life and learn how PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login to worship, live, and subsist in the same manner of the white Americans. He believed that when Indians abandoned their customary ways of fishing, hunting, gathering, and farming, tribes PapersOwl.com Login would no longer have a need for as much territory as they had and would adopt the Anglo-American way of life. (Garrison, 2008). Despite pressure from the government to fulfill the Compact of 1802, in which President Jefferson’s administration had promised the state of Georgia to remove the Cherokee and Creek Indians, Presidents Monroe and Adams, and their executives, PapersOwl.com Login decided not to force relocation on the tribes. PapersOwl.com Login
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There were plenty of reasons that the white Americans had for wanting to relocate the Native Indians. The land in the South and Southwest – named the Black Belt – was known to be rich and extremely valuable. Many entrepreneurials saw this soil as a great economic resource for farming and growing cotton. The history of violence between Indians and whites compelled many Americans to demand PapersOwl.com Login the expulsion of the tribes. The discovery of gold on Cherokee territory in 1828 and the consequent gold rush further accelerated Georgia’s fever to expel the Cherokees.
Some tribes agreed to leave almost immediately, but the Cherokees battled on. They didn’t use bows and arrows in this battle, instead opting to fight with lawyers. In two separate cases, PapersOwl.com Login including Worcester vs Georgia, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in their favor. However, President Jackson declined to enforce the rulings. In 1835, a treaty between a small band of Cherokees, known as the Treaty Party, and federal officials, signed the Treaty of New Echota stipulating that all Cherokees would leave their tribal lands within two years in return PapersOwl.com Login for $5 million and large swaths of Indian Territory land. A vast majority of the Cherokees disagreed with the treaty, ultimately leaving the tribe out of options and bound by the treaty’s provisions. In 1838, federal troops began rounding up Cherokees – including women and children – at bayonet point and marching them to the stockades, internment camps that were crowded, hot, and ridden with disease. The journey west lasted upwards of six months with as many as 8,000 casualties along the way. (Grose, 2004)
Jackson’s attitude towards Native Americans was paternalistic and patronizing. He described them as children in need off guidance, and believed the removal policy was beneficial to the Indians. Most white Americans PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login thought that the United States would never extend beyond the Mississippi River. Removal would save Indian people from the depredations of whites, and would resettle then in an area where they could govern themselves in peace. But some Americans saw this as an excuse for a brutal and inhumane course of action, and protested loudly against removal. Unfortunately, their protests did not save the Tribal Nations from removal. (PBS, 2019)
By 1837, the Jackson administration had removed 46,000 Native American people from their land east of the PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login Mississippi, and had secured treaties which led to the removal of a slightly larger number. Most members of the five southeastern tribes, including the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login Seminole, had been relocated west, opening 25 million acres of land to white settlement and to slavery.
This is part of Andrew Jackson’s legacy. Although it has been pointed out many times that he was no longer President of the United States when the Trail of Tears occurred and had never intended such a monstrous result of his policy, PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login PapersOwl.com Login it hardly excuses him. It was his insistence on the speedy removal of the Cherokees, even after he had left office, which brought about this horror.PapersOwl.com PapersOwl.com Login Login
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